South Carolina Environmental Law Project

Lawyers for the Wild Side of South Carolina

Surface Water Withdrawal Act

In September 2014, on behalf of several riparian property owners, we went to Court to have DHEC's implementation of the Surface Water Withdrawal Act overturned where it allowed industrial farms to withdraw large amounts of water entirely unfettered by a regulating permitting process. While other landowners are losing their long standing water rights, industrial agriculture operations have been granted far superior rights with fewer restrictions, despite their use of extreme amounts of water, which all amount to the state permanently transferring public trust resources to private parties.

After initial skirmishes between November 2014 and January 2015, Judge Markely Dennis agreed to hear the case. The Department answered our complaint, defending the constitutionality of the Act and asserting several affirmative defenses, including lack of standing and ripeness. In February 2015, DHEC filed a petition for extraordinary relief including removal and original jurisdiction in the South Carolina Supreme Court. That petition was denied and discovery proceeded thereafter.

On September 14, 2015, the parties filed cross-motions for summary judgment, which were heard on November 17, 2015. On January 4, 2016, Judge Dennis issued an Order denying our motion for summary judgment and granting DHEC’s motion for summary judgment. Our clients did not relent and we appealed the decision. On February 23, 2016, the Appellants served a Notice of Appeal in the Court of Appeals. On March 26, 2016, Appellants filed a Motion to Transfer the case to this Court, which was granted on April 19, 2016.

Upon completion of our appellate briefing on September 27, 2016, the Supreme Court scheduled arguments quickly and we argued the case before the state's highest court on December 1st.

Case Update:

On July 19, 2017, the S.C. Supreme Court decided our case challenging the Surface Water Withdrawal Act in favor of mega-farms. The opinion was controversial, with a 3-2 split among the justices and varying media coverage. The Court said that people who own property on our waterways, and who fish, swim, kayak and recreate on these waterways, did not have the right to bring a challenge to the law which dramatically impacts their property rights and water uses. But the law has broader implications beyond the properties belonging to a handful of individuals.

To quote Joseph Sax, a preeminent scholar on the topic, when special interests exert an undue influence on the public resource decisions of legislative and administrative bodies and cause those bodies to ignore broadly based public interests, particularly in our surface waters, the public trust doctrine serves to "promote equality of political power for a disorganized and diffuse majority by remanding appropriate cases to the legislature after public opinion has been aroused." In this case, the Court failed to apply the basic tenets of the public trust doctrine, thus failing to protect the public's interest in use of our surface waters.

The registration process of this law permanently grants massive amounts of water to large agricultural users without regard to public rights in the use of these waters. The dissenting Justices recognized the public trust give-away and yesterday, in an effort to highlight the public importance of this case, SCELP filed a petition for rehearing on the narrow issue of the public trust doctrine. Our claim is that the state has a special obligation to protect the rivers, lakes and streams for the use and benefit of all South Carolinians -- a rule of law that the majority of the Supreme Court failed to implement.

Surface Water Withdrawal Act

In order for South Carolinians to continue to enjoy our lakes and rivers for recreation and livelihood, there has to be water left in them.